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Sunday, March 22, 2015
How Does Poverty Cause Crime
WHAT DOES THE POVERTY MEANS
POVERTY CONFLICTING DIFFERENT SOCIETIES
ADVERSE EFFECTS ON ONE'S PSYCHE
PROBLEMS OF SOCIETY REACTION OF PEOPLE
INSECURITY AMONG THE GROWING GENERATION
POVERTY CAUSE OF CERTAIN CRIMES
A THOROUGH SURVEY OF WORLD SITUATION
Poverty is a relative concept and depends on the overall standard of living in this society.
According to experts, not getting decent wages for their work, young people gradually lose the desire to marry, marry, have children - they are full of fear for tomorrow, not sure that tomorrow they will not be fired because of another financial crisis. In addition, low wages and lack of jobs, experts say, are pushing young people to commit crimes in order to get rich quickly. It is, therefore, among criminals, increases the number of adolescents, aged 18 to 25 years.
Poverty is a consequence of diverse and interrelated reasons, which combine into the following groups:
- economic (unemployment, low wages, low productivity, lack of competitiveness of the industry);
- socio-medical (disability, old age, high levels of morbidity);
- Demographic (parent families, a large number of dependents in the family);
- socio-economic (low level of social guarantees);
- educational qualifications (a low level of education, lack of training);
- political (military conflict, forced migration);
- regional-geographic (uneven development of regions).
As well, current crisis makes people react and do something, even if it is illegal, they start committing a crime. Poverty causes many crimes, as if a person was not poor and had faith in himself, he would not face the thought that he should search another ways to get money. Being poor, which could be caused by different reasons, makes a person unhappy, incapable to earn enough money, to buy anything he wants or at least something necessary.
Poverty determines a certain stereotype in a person’s thoughts, and he does not see any constructive solving of the problem, as he wants to choose the easiest way of getting money, even harming other people. Poverty has a huge psychological influence on people, who become depressed, desperate and then they decide to commit a crime, as they have not found anything that can legally get them out of such situation.
Too many problems that a person faces in the modern society makes him get angrier on the whole situation and look for the new way of solving their problem. The desperate economical situation in the country and consequently the lack of the work places especially for young people creates the thoughts and actions of crime. No guarantees from the government and no proper help to people who are poor, leads to the chaos and misunderstanding, where the only way out they find is to commit a crime.
Poverty as a social phenomenon in a historical sense is of lasting value. The extent and depth of "immersion" of the people in the country reflects two important aspects of society - the level of development of productive forces and the corresponding character of their operation principle of social justice.
Most often, poverty is treated as financial insecurity of people, when income of a person or family does not allow maintaining socially necessary consumption for life, interfering with normal living and personal development. Poverty serves as guidelines for shaping social policy. This phenomenon is assessed by using indicators of absolute and relative poverty, its depth and severity, as well as by the subjective perception of their individual well-being and quality of life. To determine the effect of poverty on crime, there may be also another way: by studying the living conditions of the poor and convicted before they commit crimes.
As a consequence of the fact that poverty causes crime, criminally distorted psychology of society, values, personality as a direct cause of crime are expressed by more than just greed, aggression, irresponsibility and neglect of criminal law prohibitions. It has several forms: greed, greed, the cause component of the Organized Crime and Entrepreneurship, greed, parasitism, generating professional and recidivism, greed, irresponsibility, have a "drunken" crime, situational robbery and looting teens, when crimes are committed to meet the immediate material needs , greed, poverty, which is based on physical survival. At a gain now there is 80% of the totality of the causes of crime at this time. The main source of crime in any society is the aggravation of his social contradictions. It is also defined as meaningful and quantifiable features of the formation are within a specific time parameters. It is known that the technologically advanced capitalist countries do not have the same crimes.
As a fact, crimes begin from the childhood. As a rule, if a child was born in a poor family, there are more chances that he will start committing crimes. All over the world there is propaganda of a luxurious way of life, of successful people, of expensive mansions, cars, of beautiful journeys, etc. When children and adolescents see that One of the main aspects that can prevent poverty is education. If children are educated properly, then they will perceive the reality as it is and they will try to succeed in legal ways to study, to get a job. Sometimes, crimes are the symptom of the culture, and education can cure the cultural poverty and financial poverty will be cured itself, as a consequence.
As a fact, not only poor people commit crimes, as there are also rich people who have no boundaries in their actions and power and they also commit crimes to get more money and power. Considering the statistics, the total number of the seven index crimes is reported to police per 100,000 inhabitants in the United States. The research states that if to reduce poverty, crime will be reduced, although with the crisis that has begun in 2008, there have been registered less crimes, although there are more poor people because of the crisis. As an example of it, in the first decade of the XXI century crime in the United States has tended to decline. By the end of the decade, crime rates, according to many indicators, have fallen dramatically, despite the economic crisis of 2008-2010. In some cities such as New York, the crime rate has dropped to the record lows. With the onset of recession in the U.S., many media outlets have expressed fears that the crisis (for example, increased unemployment and reduced real incomes of people) will lead to a rapid increase in crime. FBI report shows that these fears have not yet met.
Published in the 2008, the study of the Heritage Foundation showed that the relationship between economic perturbations and crime exists, but it is not so clear. Thus, in the United States there is a nation-wide crime statistics since 1934. During all this time only for 16 years the crime rate has declined. The crime rate has steadily increased from 1955 to 1972, although this time the U.S. economy has experienced a rapid period of development, weak, a recession occurs only in mid-1960. In turn, during the Great Depression - statistics was only for the period from 1934 to 1938 - criminals showed less activity.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) issued a preliminary report on crime rates in the U.S. in 2009. This statistics is based on data provided by about 17 thousand law enforcement agencies of different jurisdictions. The main conclusions of the report - compared to 2008, the number of property crimes in the U.S. decreased by 6.1%, violent crimes - by 4,4%. According to the report, this year the number of murders in the U.S. fell by 10%, robberies - on 6,5%, rape - by 3,3%. Among property crimes, the most significantly decreased the number of thefts of cars (by 18,7%), theft (by 5,3%) and burglary (2.5%). The greatest reductions in crime noted in cities with populations exceeding one million. In addition to FBI statistics, the crime rate measures the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics by the Census Bureau (study called National Crime Victimization Survey). Since 1973, there have been annually polled 70-80 thousand of households (family or group of people living together and having a total budget), to identify - about how many actually committed crimes Americans have not informed the police. The last time similar research was conducted in 2008. It showed that the victims of the criminals, Americans turn to law enforcement agencies do not always: becoming the victims of violent crimes, they shall notify the police in 51,2% of the property - in 39,6% of cases. Another important indicator for gauging the level of crime in the U.S. is a traditional study conducted the service Gallup “Rating the perception of crime.” Every year Gallup asks Americans to estimate - increased or decreased the number of crimes in their area and across the country.
In the recent years, such survey was conducted in September 2009. Then 74% of Americans said that compared with last year the crime rate in the U.S. grew on 15% - reported that the situation has improved. The rise in crime in their area was 51% decrease - 29%. As a fact, 12% of respondents said that the situation with crime in their place of residence was “very serious”; the crime rate across the United States similarly estimated 55% of respondents. It is curious that in the last decade, both of these indicators remain fairly stable, fluctuating slightly.
As a rule, those countries where there is no proper economic regulations, there are more chances that people will react negatively and commit more crimes, as the consequence of unhappy life and no perspective in such countries. Although there is no proof of the direct connection of the fact that poverty is the main motive to commit a crime, as there are many factors present in the minds of people who in different situations can act differently. It is not quite explicable that fact that while there is a depression and economical crisis all over the world, people do not commit more crimes, as the statistics shows that people do not intend to commit more crimes. The consequences and the logic of this fact are not fully understandable. In the modern world everything changes so quickly that people get accustomed to the situation, they learn the rules of the “game” and probably they try to find a better way to earn money and succeed than to commit a crime. There can be also hope that the more people get more education, the more they get knowledge, the better they understand life and the rules to survive. The more people know, the better they understand the situations, the values, the perspective, the more ideas they have, the more creative they are and the more they feel capable to find a job and to succeed in life.
In poor countries such as Brazil and the countries of the former Soviet Union, there are millions of poor people who do not have a way out because of the lack of any perspectives to find a job, as the level of corruption is extremely high. In such countries it is especially visible the difference and the gap between the extremely rich and very poor people. There are almost no middle class people who have a job, a house and other benefits. That is why there are almost no chances to combat it, as poor and desperate people in these countries do not see any other opportunity except committing a crime. The obvious injustice and no social guarantees make people feel as losers, who see the luxurious life and who cannot touch it. As a fact, there is a lot of envy because of such a big gap and so much poverty.
Each country has its problems and level of poverty, but there is one main point- the lack of money. If people had money at least for the basic needs, there would not be such level of poverty. And as Aristotle said: “Poverty - a source of disturbance and crime”, which means that little problem becomes a huge problem if there is nothing useful done to prevent it. That is why the right policy of the country will be able to eliminate poverty and along with that there will be no crime in the future.
Monday, March 23, 2015
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The one who is most deserving of thanks and praise from people is Allah
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“POVERTY”, wrote Aristotle, “is the parent of crime.” But was he right? Certainly, poverty and crime are associated. And the idea that a lack of income might drive someone to misdeeds sounds plausible. But research by Amir Sariaslan of the Karolinska Institute, in Stockholm, and his colleagues, just published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, casts doubt on the chain of causation—at least as far as violent crime and the misuse of drugs are concerned.
Using the rich troves of personal data which Scandinavian governments collect about their citizens, Mr Sariaslan and his team were able to study more than half a million children born in Sweden between 1989 and 1993. The records they consulted contained information about these people’s educational attainments, annual family incomes and criminal convictions. They also enabled the researchers to identify everybody’s siblings.
In Sweden the age of criminal responsibility is 15, so Mr Sariaslan tracked his subjects from the dates of their 15th birthdays onwards, for an average of three-and-a-half years. He found, to no one’s surprise, that teenagers who had grown up in families whose earnings were among the bottom fifth were seven times more likely to be convicted of violent crimes, and twice as likely to be convicted of drug offences, as those whose family incomes were in the top fifth.
What did surprise him was that when he looked at families which had started poor and got richer, the younger children—those born into relative affluence—were just as likely to misbehave when they were teenagers as their elder siblings had been. Family income was not, per se, the determining factor.
That suggests two, not mutually exclusive, possibilities. One is that a family’s culture, once established, is “sticky”—that you can, to put it crudely, take the kid out of the neighbourhood, but not the neighbourhood out of the kid. Given, for example, children’s propensity to emulate elder siblings whom they admire, that sounds perfectly plausible. The other possibility is that genes which predispose to criminal behaviour (several studies suggest such genes exist) are more common at the bottom of society than at the top, perhaps because the lack of impulse-control they engender also tends to reduce someone’s earning capacity.
Neither of these conclusions is likely to be welcome to social reformers. The first suggests that merely topping up people’s incomes, though it may well be a good idea for other reasons, will not by itself address questions of bad behaviour. The second raises the possibility that the problem of intergenerational poverty may be self-reinforcing, particularly in rich countries like Sweden where the winnowing effects of education and the need for high levels of skill in many jobs will favour those who can control their behaviour, and not those who rely on too many chemical crutches to get them through the day.
This is only one study, of course. Such conclusions will need to be tested by others. But if they are confirmed, the fact that they are uncomfortable will be no excuse for ignoring them.
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